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Author/Editor
Jones, Terry
Title
Did John Gower Rededicate His 'Confessio Amantis' before Henry IV's Usurpation?
Published
Jones, Terry. "Did John Gower Rededicate His 'Confessio Amantis' before Henry IV's Usurpation?" In Middle English Texts in Transition: A Festschrift Dedicated to Toshiyuki Takamiya on his 70th Birthday. Ed. Horobin, Simon, and Mooney, Linne R. Woodbridge, Suffolk: York Medieval Press/Boydell and Brewer, 2014, pp. 40-74. ISBN 9781903153536
Review
Jones reconsiders the evidence traditionally used to show that Gower rededicated CA to Henry in 1392-93, which has been the main argument to prove his disaffection to Richard II before he was deposed. His study starts with a detailed analysis of the two main manuscripts used by Macaulay for his theory of the second and third recension of the poem: Huntington Library MS Ellesmere 26 A.17 and Oxford, Bodleian library, MS Fairfax 3. Jones revises Macaulay's dating of Ellesmere 26 A.17 to 1397-99 through an in-depth examination of the heraldic ornaments in fol. 1, which leads him to conclude that it must have been produced later, in 1403. He discards the possibility of a posterior addition of these ornaments given the carefully planned design of the manuscript, concluding that "the fact that it is such a high-class production also reinforces the impression that this may have been a royal commission possibly paid for by the king as a gift to his son--as part of his ongoing propaganda campaign" (54). Jones reaches a similar conclusion about the corrections and changes made to MS Fairfax 3, the only pre-usurpation manuscript. As he reminds us, Macaulay already acknowledged that the First Revision Hand must have amended the text after Henry's accession –given that there is a reference to Richard's fate. Following Parkes' identification of one of the CA revision hands as the same Scribe 4 that updated four manuscripts of VC, Jones has been able to confirm that in one of these manuscripts (Oxford, All Souls College, MS 98) "every single passage disparaging Richard II is in a different ink, and written over an erasure" (56). In Jones' view, the two revisions must have been done after Henry's usurpation, as a result of the "pressure on his poets to make them fall in line with the new political correctness" (56). Therefore, Jones claims, there is no evidence that Gower rededicated CA to Henry in 1392-93--and even if he rededicated the poem some years later, that doesn't mean that he changed allegiance or he was disenchanted or disillusioned; he just changed patron, a common practice in the period. The rest of the article is dedicated to demonstrating that the dedication was amended after the deposition, based on three arguments. The first argument is the reference to Henry as "Henry of Lancaster," a title he only inherited on his father's death in 1399. Jones has been able to corroborate that this designation was rare before 1399, even in books of accounts, where the denomination "Earl of Derby" was used until that date, though after 1399 it was often corrected by sewing pieces of velum with the new designation "of Lancaster." Secondly, neither the political theories and mirrors for princes of the period would describe Richard's behavior as that of an oppressive ruler, nor do any of Gower's poems written prior to 1399 criticize him for being a bad king. Jones finds no credible evidence of Gower's disenchantment with Richard, nor of any degree of admiration for Henry, who before 1399 was not a particularly remarkable military or political figure. Finally, Jones analyzes the "black propaganda," the rewriting of history promoted by Henry and Arundel after the usurpation which not only depicted Richard in a negative light but also tried to show people dissatisfied with his rule. "Everywhere we see signs of nervous scribes conforming to the new political correctness" (71), he affirms. It is in this context that the rededication of CA must be understood, which, given the new dating proposed by Jones, seems to show the existence of two, and not three, recensions of the poem.] [ASH. Copyright. The John Gower Society. JGN 33.2.]
Date
2014
Gower Subjects
Manuscripts and Textual Studies
Confessio Amantis
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This article has Open Peer Review reports available.

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BMC Medicine 2015 13 :146

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© Althouse and Scarpino; licensee BioMed Central.2015

Received: 18February2015

Accepted: 22May2015

Published: 24June2015

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Abstract

Background

The recent increase in whooping cough incidence (primarily caused by ) presents a challenge to both public health practitioners and scientists trying to understand the mechanisms behind its resurgence. Three main hypotheses have been proposed to explain the resurgence: 1) waning of protective immunity from vaccination or natural infection over time, 2) evolution of to escape protective immunity, and 3) low vaccine coverage. Recent studies have suggested a fourth mechanism: asymptomatic transmission from individuals vaccinated with the currently used acellular vaccines.

Methods

Using wavelet analyses of incidence in the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK) and a phylodynamic analysis of 36 clinical isolates from the US, we find evidence in support of asymptomatic transmission of . Next, we examine the clinical, public health, and epidemiological consequences of asymptomatic transmission using a mathematical model.

Results

We find that: 1) the timing of changes in age-specific attack rates observed in the US and UK are consistent with asymptomatic transmission; 2) the phylodynamic analysis of the US sequences indicates more genetic diversity in the overall bacterial population than would be suggested by the observed number of infections, a pattern expected with asymptomatic transmission; 3) asymptomatic infections can bias assessments of vaccine efficacy based on observations of -free weeks; 4) asymptomatic transmission can account for the observed increase in incidence; and 5) vaccinating individuals in close contact with infants too young to receive the vaccine (“cocooning” unvaccinated children) may be ineffective.

Conclusions

Although a clear role for the previously suggested mechanisms still exists, asymptomatic transmission is the most parsimonious explanation for many of the observations surrounding the resurgence of in the US and UK. These results have important implications for vaccination policy and present a complicated scenario for achieving herd immunity and eradication.

Whooping cough Asymptomatic infection Phylodynamic analysis Stochastic disease dynamical modeling Vaccination policy
Fig. 1

Increase in incidence over time. Panel a shows cases in the United States from 1922 through 2012 and in the United Kingdom from 1940 through 2013 (from: [ 17 ] and [ 70 ]). Shaded regions correspond to the pre-vaccine era, the DTP era, and the DTaP era, respectively. Panels b and c show the incidence of by age group with darker color indicating younger ages in the US and UK, respectively. Infants less than 1 year old are labeled in darkest colors

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